She's an Astronomer: Did we really need that series?

A long time ago when I initiated the She’s an Astronomer series I came up with the idea that it would be nice to ask everyone the same questions so that we get a overview of what lots of different (female) astronomers thought about the same issues. I deliberately set up a range of questions to allow the interviewees to focus on both the positive aspects of being involved in astronomy (and particularly the wonderful science Galaxy Zoo does) as well as any negative aspects of being a female in a very male dominated group.

shesanastronomerpics

And just in case there are any doubters out there I want to make it very clear that astronomy, both professional and amateur, remains very male dominated at almost all levels (and in professional astronomy, with declining participation the more senior the role). The UK’s professional astronomer group, the RAS has the following statement on the gender make-up of professional astronomers in the UK (admittedly now from 13 year old data):

“The 1998 PPARC/RAS survey for the first time enquired into the gender of members of the UK astronomical community. Women comprised 22% of the population of PhD students, which compares favourably with the 20% of students accepted for undergraduate places in physics and astronomy. However, only 7% of permanent university staff in astronomy are female. Of the UK IAU membership in 1998, 9.2% are female.”

and from our American friends at AAS, they provide a more recently updated table of Statistics which shows the encouraging statistic that in the US now about 40% of the PhD students are now women (but still only about 10% of permanent staff).

Statistics on amateur astronomers are a bit harder to find. You’d think our own Zooite database would help, but unfortunately we don’t track that kind of information. From experience though (as a speaker) I know amateur astronomers are an extremely male dominated group and disappointingly there has been very little change in this over the last few decades. This article in Sky and Telescope (which incidentally pictures one of the professionals we interviewed – Prof. Meg Urry) celebrates the improvement in the numbers of professional women astronomers since the late 70s, but reports that the situation hasn’t changed nearly as much in amateur astronomy: “According to Sky & Telescope reader polls, in 1979 only 6 percent of subscribers were female. By 2002 that number had grown to [only?] 9 percent.” And thanks to my friends on Twitter I found more recent S&T reader demographics which lists only 5% female readers as of January 2010. So that’s very disappointing. And in case you think such figures are somehow S&T only, my friends at the Jodcast tell me their mid 2010 survey of listeners resulted in a figure of 14% women (consistent with 9% women from 2007 within statistical uncertainty).

Anyway back to our She’s an Astronomer series and let’s see what the women who are involved have to say about all this. As it’s been several months now since the last post I’ll remind you that the questions we asked ranged from the personal (to give a bit of background) to more general. They were:

  • How did you first hear about Galaxy Zoo?
  • What has been your main involvement in the Galaxy Zoo project?
  • What do you like most about being involved in Galaxy Zoo?
  • What do you think is the most interesting astronomical question Galaxy Zoo will help to solve?
  • How/when did you first get interested in Astronomy?
  • What (if any) do you think are the main barriers to women’s involvement in Astronomy?
  • Do you have any particular role models in Astronomy?

Also if you remember we interviewed 16 different women – which comprised all 8 of the professional astronomers (from students, to senior professor) who had been involved in Galaxy Zoo at that time, plus 8 of the Zooites.

The full list of interviewees was:

I’ve been wondering for quite some time if the group agreed with each other on anything, and if we can come up with any interesting conclusions by looking at the different answers to each question. As some of you know I’ve been a bit distracted (little things like having a second baby, and getting some exciting Zoo2 results out), but I have now collated the answers to two of the most general questions (“What do you think is the most interesting astronomical question Galaxy Zoo will help to solve?” and “What (if any) do you think are the main barriers to women’s involvement in Astronomy?”) and plan to present my summary of the responses in upcoming blog posts.

I was going to chicken out and start with the science – the less controversial question (and where there was the most agreement), but thinking about it, perhaps it’s better to get the negative out of the way first, so I’ll leave the exciting science answers for next time and instead start with:

What (if any) do you think are the main barriers to women’s involvement in Astronomy?

Here there was a lot of disagreement, but some interesting trends with the level of formal education/career progression in the field (unfortunately in the sense that there were more perceived problems the longer a person had worked in astronomy).

For the most part the Zooites focussed on the problem of presenting science (to both girls and boys) as a boring/hard subject in schools (and to a lesser extent in the media). Our youngest interviewee, Hannah (who is working on her IGCSEs as a home schooled student) summarized the general view most clearly “because it’s taught so badly at school, it shuts down any interest”, and Alice (a science writer and former science teacher) agrees: “I think poor education is a far worse barrier than gender”. Gemma (a postgraduate student in engineering) muses that perhaps it’s because: “maths and science are [not] presented in an interesting way for girls at school and they are perceived as hard, rigid, dusty disciplines”. And Julia (an amateur astronomer with a degree in Economics) finishes it off by saying that she “think[s] that the media is partly to blame for propagating this myth by getting it badly wrong when presenting some science programmes and portraying maths as something we all hated at school”.

There were some positive views from the Zooites though. Hanny (a Dutch school teacher) expressed a her view that if you’re determined enough you’ll make it: “I can’t think of something that would’ve stopped me to be honest”, and there was a view expressed by the volunteers with more life experience that things were improving with time, for example Julia says: “I think things have improved slightly since [I was at school] but the popular myth still exists that maths is hard and science is stuffy and boring” and Els (a secretary in Belgium) says: “as you can see with the Galaxy Zoo community there are lots of women involved of all ages and backgrounds. So I think we’re getting there, eventually.” Aida (a stay home Mom in Puerto Rico, originally from the Dominican Republic) agrees saying “now I see that the universities [in the Dominican Republic] are full of women studying and that makes me so proud. There are no barriers now for us”.

And our ever resourceful Zooites provided some suggestions for improving the first formal introduction to science. Gemma says it best “if people could see more clearly at a young age how many cool things you can do with maths and science and the sense of achievement you get from problem solving, that they aren’t dry subjects that you learn by rote and that there are still many interesting things to discover, I’m sure a lot more people would be interested, be they women or men.”

From the younger members of the professional astronomers there was really good news in a generally positive feeling that the days of really strong barriers/discrimination are over. Anna (a Masters student) told us that “A female office mate and I were discussing how we don’t think there have been any obstacles for us”, Manda (a recent PhD recipient) says; “I don’t think astronomy is any longer a male dominated subject” and that “today [the many barriers which were around 10-20 years ago are] much less of an issue”, Carie (another recent PhD recipient) says that “I’ve never personally felt any discrimination as a female Astronomer,” and Kate (who recently left professional astronomy after completing her PhD and a first post doctoral position says: “I was always given enormous encouragement from my peers and never felt discriminated against.”. We even hear that (again from Anna) “A male office mate brought up that he believes it is easier to be a woman than a man in astronomy”. Unfortunately the picture coming from the more senior astronomers is not so rosy, and our most senior professional Prof. Meg Urry even explains that this was a shift in opinion for her as she remained in the field: “As an undergraduate and graduate student […] I frankly didn’t expect any problems and I didn’t notice any.”, but “30 years in physics and astronomy have shown me [..] the huge pile of female talent that goes wasted every year.” and that “When I see young women today with those attitudes” (i.e.. that there is no problem), “I find myself hoping that in their case, it will be true” (although she carefully adds that “I don’t think it’s a bad thing to be oblivious, as I was – it probably kept me from dissipating energy fighting the machine”). Unconsciously addressing the view of Anna’s male peer that it might be easier for the women than the men now, she describes that even 30 years ago she was being told that “as a woman, I would benefit (the implication was, unfairly) from affirmative action” and concludes “When people say this today, as they often do, I have to laugh. . I sure do wish it were true [..]”

Many of the professional astronomers focussed on the problems the career path poses. Carie explains the situation: “An astronomer must spend much of her 20s and 30s moving from institution to institution, completing a graduate degree and a couple of postdoctoral positions before finding a permanent position.” and Kate (who gave up on professional astronomy because of her dislike of the career path) says: “I don’t think the academic career path suits women particularly well. […] I personally wasn’t keen on the post-doc circuit of moving about every few years…”, Manda agrees saying: “the need to move around frequently for postdoc positions often means people have to make very tough choices”, and Karen (that’s me – and I’m a fairly senior postdoc now) says: “to remain in a career as a researcher is very difficult for both men and women, and I believe slightly more so for women” and I suggest that this career path “doesn’t seem optimized to retain the best researchers – merely the most persistent or flexible”, but Manda points out that “in my experience there are many men who worry about this too and many women who don’t so I don’t think this is a barrier that is specific to women by any means.”

However, another problem posed by the research career path is the balancing of duel careers, something which preferentially hits women scientists as I explained: “because of the current gender imbalance, a higher proportion of female scientists than male scientists are married to other scientists” and as I know from personal experience “the balancing of two careers as junior academics at the same time is something which is really very difficult and stressful”. Carie agrees: “there are numerous problems to consider if both partners are academics, a common situation for female astronomers”.

Worries about combining a life in research with having a family are also mentioned several times. Carie says that if you’re “thinking about starting a family, it can be very difficult [..]”. and from Vardha (another senior postdoc): “I think that it must be difficult for women to have children while pursuing an astronomical career, since both tasks are quite time demanding.” Alice is the only Zooite to mention the demands of family, but points out that for many women (herself included) “Having a family one day is important enough to me that I would choose that over a career if I was forced to pick one or the other. ” Of course as Vardha says, “there are many women in astronomy who prove that it is possible [to do both]” and in fact we have two examples of professional astronomers with children who were interviewed (that’s me and Meg), although I did say that “having children while a postdoc [was] a difficult choice to have had to make” (and would add that the impact on my staying power in the field is yet to be determined as I do not have that sought after permanent job yet). Alice mentions three more female astronomer role models with children (Cecilia Payne-Gaposkin, Jocelyn Bell-Burnell and Vera Rubin) and says in particular that a blog post on Vera Rubin was “very encouraging on that front” (i.e. the ability to balance astronomical research and having children), but then Manda says that “There are very few female astronomers in very senior academic positions and even fewer who have chosen to have a family”, and goes on to comment that “This does sometimes make me doubt if I can pull off both having a successful academic career as well as a family because there are so few examples of women who have actually achieved this!”

Our most senior professional astronomers (our two Profs: Meg and Pamela) both have comments about the sometimes poor climate and the still prevalent (but usually subtle) discrimination. Pamela says that “I think a lot of academia is still very much an old boys network”, and describes examples of subtle discrimination which just make the women feel they don’t belong (for example “too few women’s bathrooms”, “equipment [..] designed for tall, flat chested, heavy object lifting men” etc.). Meg says that 30 years in the field have shown here that “Fewer women are sought after as speakers, assistant professors, prize winners, than men of comparable ability”. Going back to the school years, Zooite Julia says that “Girls just weren’t encouraged to take sciences”, and Aida recalls how when she was at school (in the Dominican Republic) “girls were supposed to marry young and be housewives”. And not to depress you further, but some of our 16 interviewees had some horrible stories of less subtle discrimination to share. Meg has “seen talented women ignored, overlooked, and sometimes denigrated to the point where they abandon their dreams”, Pamela recalls the common assumption that “since I’m in a physics department, [..] I must be a secretary”. And I remembered that “It was hard to be a teenage girl who was good at maths/science and I spent a lot of time learning to hide it”. From the Zooites, Alice mentioned Cecilia Payne-Gaposkin and Jocelyn Bell-Burnell who she comments were “both treated outrageously unfairly” and has some sad stories of her own to share too.

But moving back to the positive I’ll say again that there was a real sense that things are improving – just very slowly. Pamela (who remember is based in the US which has the worst maternity leave policy of any developed country and poor health care for most people not in stable jobs) concludes her comments with the statement that ” I suspect it will take at least a generation (and major reform to things like maternity leave and health care) for real change to take place, but I believe the change has started.”. I agree saying ” I hope eventually society’s perception of women in science will change […], but I think this will be a very slow process.”

And finally as encouragement for all the girls and women out there interested in astronomy as a career I’m going to reproduce almost the whole last paragraph of Meg’s answer with some helpful suggestions for getting around the problems which remain.

“[..] let me keep it simple: there is discrimination, and it is done by all of us, men and women both, quite unconsciously for the most part. There is a large body of research in the social science literature (which, unfortunately, natural scientists rarely read) documenting the natural tendency of all of us – people raised in a society where men dominate leadership roles in most fields – to undervalue women. I hope young women don’t experience what I did – and there’s a good chance they won’t – but every young woman or under-represented minority scientist should learn about this “unconscious bias” so that, should they ever find themselves getting discouraged or feeling inadequate as scientists, they will correct for the effect of a harmful environment and recognize their own considerable achievements and talents. Or just call me! I’ll be happy to try to reassure them. It’s probably not them, it’s that they are trying to do science in an environment that is unwittingly toxic.”

So that’s why I thought we needed a blog series showcasing the women of Galaxy Zoo. Next time – all the fun science which after all is the reason we all tough it out when we have to!

Tags: ,

About karenlmasters

Astronomer at Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth. Project Scientist for Galaxy Zoo. Spokesperson for the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Vice President of the Society for Popular Astronomy. Busy having fun with astronomy!

17 responses to “She's an Astronomer: Did we really need that series?”

  1. Alice says :

    Fascinating and wonderful, Karen – thank you so much for going through everything in such detail!

    I wonder if it’s still true that I’d choose a family over a career? I have gained a lot of knowledge since I said that. I still want a family of my own, but it doesn’t weigh on my mind as much these days because I’m a lot more active. I think having a family depends on finding the right partner and whether you can afford it – in short, if I can’t support a family, I’d go for the career instead. A sad sort of choice.

    As a nice little ancedote for you all, I’ve been doing a space lecture series in a rural area. At least half the audience have been women. We’ve had to abruptly move premises, and the people who are looking for me to find out when it’ll re-start have all been women so far! Not, I hope, that I’d be less pleased for a man to come along – as far as I am concerned both sexes should enjoy astronomy equally!

  2. Debra says :

    Excellent read, Karen. There’s still lots of work to be done on gender parity in astronomy, but it’s getting better. My advice to women/girls interested in astronomy is… BE BOLD!

  3. Joseph K. H. Cheng says :

    Such a meticulous piece of research. Congratulations, Karen. I have always held the view that most human problems can be solved if we were able to remove double standard. A very happy and rewarding New Year to the Zooite community !

  4. Chris Kirkland says :

    One of the problems at A-level (16-19 yrs old) is that students who have a genuine interest in physics are put off by its perceived difficulty as a qualification. Research backs up this perception. Any changes in bringing qualifications to an equal standard are seen as dumbing down. Having friends doing the same subject helps but this is less likely to happen for the girls.

  5. veggy2 says :

    Sadly, I never did the astronomy career thing so can only comment on amateur astronomy and early education.

    In my all-boys school in the sixties, astronomy was only taught by a metalwork teacher in evening classes and it was never mentioned in mainstream science lessons. But that didn’t worry me one jot because I loved the subject so much I taught myself. Grumbling that people of whatever gender are put off by the way it’s taught strikes me as a little passive. It would be nice if it was taught inspirationally, but if necessary simply inspire yourself with all the wonderful material available on satellite TV.

    As to amateur astronomy, in those days being a keen amateur involved long hours freezing cold on dark wet lawns drawing Jupiter’s clouds or watching variable stars wax and wane. If you were of the really semi- sociopathic, trainspotting tendency you got to become a famous comet hunter but only after long years spent on the aforesaid wet lonely lawns. Social, it wasn’t, unless you happened to live in a town with an astronomy club.

    With the transformation that GZ has brought you can now do cutting edge important science from a warm study with the option of socialising with like-minded folk at any moment. Whether or not there is a gender specific attraction, it would be interesting to know generally what differences to the amateur astronomy demographic this qualitative change in the nature of the hobby will bring over time – if any.

  6. Meg Urry says :

    Thanks so much, Karen, this was very interesting to read. And I agree it is definitely getting much better! So let me propose a way to know when we are approaching equality: when men start worrying as much as women do (or even, at all) about combining family and career. Right now, men seem to assume it will all work out, whereas women assume they (the women) will have to compromise something. (Countless women have asked me about whether it is possible to have a family and a career but not one man has ever asked me that question, even though it surely impacts them almost as much.)
    Final thoughts: (1) I like to tell young women that being a professor is the ideal career for someone with a family: it’s very satisfying work, one’s hours are very flexible, and the salary is sufficient to get some help with the kids. And: (2) having kids is wonderful – it’s the best thing I ever did.

  7. Alice says :

    I think most of us are in pretty much the same boat, Veggy – that we taught ourselves to some extent. I think with any subject anyone loves, they do that. Astronomy was very rarely mentioned at all at any school I went to, and there was no class in it, not even in the evenings by a teacher of another subject. I read amply on the subject; needless to say I was noisily discouraged by many teachers and peers, so had to keep it mostly secret. That’s not to denigrate your obvious achievement in having learnt a lot on your own!

    To a degree I’d say you’re right that it’s passive to be turned off a subject simply by the way it’s taught. I now regret dropping out of Geography as soon as I could, but having a teacher who spent the lessons looking down our shirt collars and making suggestive remarks rather than teaching us would not have let me learn much anyway. It also depends on what resources you have. There may well be children who could do very well in a subject but have no books or Internet access at home. There could be children who’d do brilliantly at science if only they had a better maths teacher. There could be – and I’m sure are – people who would excel in astronomy if only they had more free time.

    And if one knows what is available, too. If one hears nothing from the media or their teachers that science is inaccessible and loathsome, one could be forgiven for assuming this to be true. Getting past poor teaching is as much a sign of having persistence, time and resources as having talent or enjoyment.

  8. elizabeth says :

    Wonderful! Karen very well written gives everyone something to think about.

  9. Karen Masters says :

    Thanks for all the positive comments.

    Veggy – I also wonder about the impact the shift towards safe indoor amateur astronomy might have on the demographics. I wish the Zoo database collected such information. I wonder if it was collected as part of the motivation study done in 2009. I will email Jordan and ask.

    Meg – absolutely. The only thing I will add is that I had an interesting conversation not too long ago with a (male) astronomer with children (his wife also happens to be an astronomer). Anyway he talked about his wish to make things as equal as possible in his family, and how hard that is for him. He feels he gets no acknowledgement of the many hours he puts in at chidcare and housework for which (he felt) his people assumed his wife would need some allowance for. For example when his kids were babies it was expected that he would still be attending conferences while there was an assumption his wife would need some time off. I’m actually not sure which is best. I think the assumption parents want to back off on work commitments can be as damaging as not allowing them space to back off if they want to (for example they might miss important chances). But it was an eye opener to me to how tough it is for the men who do already worry about these things. They may not be mentioning it because they don’t feel they are allowed to.

  10. DancesWithWords says :

    I read this post with great interest. I’ve always been father who wanted his daughter, all daughters to challenge the rules of there gender. Whether it was in sports or science etc. The biggest barrier my daughter faced was from her own peer group. Between 4 and 6 grade she went from loving to learn, to a young person that only really cared what her friends thought.

    I’ve a niece (not my real niece, but in West Indian tradition I and my wife are Auntie and Uncle to our best friends children). My niece and I where having a conversation about school. She’s about 13 and very bright. When I asked her last week how school was going, she said, it was boring and she doesn’t like it. This is a turn around from all previous years, when school was fun and she genuinely enjoyed learning. I asked her why she didn’t like school anymore. She said it was not cool. I said, but we all know now smart you are, she replied, it wasn’t cool to be smart. It was not cool to be smart because her friends didn’t think it is cool to be smart.

    It was shocked and very sadden to hear this. Here you have two girls raised nearly 1000 km apart and with an age difference of 20 years. Yet both are being made to believe that being smart or achieving beyond there peers is such a negative that they willing stop learning just to fit in. My daughter grew up in economically and socially difficult situation. My niece, has two very supportive parents, very middle class incomes, who are way above average as Canadians in their involvement in there two children’s education. Now I fear similar outcomes.

    I see this sort of thing I see all the time. I get all the barriers that adult women face as they attempt a career in sciences and in particular astronomy. But we lose most females before they turn 13. Truth is if we can’t give our daughters the strength, a clear vision of who they are, that they will to fight even if it means standing alone, and I mean alone on the school grounds where there are no parents around, among their peers then what chance do our daughters have? For most part, parents live on the periphery of their children’s world. Most of us don’t want to admit that we are not the biggest influence in our daughters lives. The biggest impact no our daughters lives happens between the time they step out the door to go to school until they step back in the door in the afternoon. With the advent of texting, iPad, iPhone, Smartphones etc… even that barrier is falling away.

    I’m an amateur astronomer, I work with others in our area and we put on regular public astronomy events. I see the enthusiast of boys and girls as they look at Saturn for the first time. At that time, looking up into the heavens there is no difference between the boy or the girl, the wonder is equal. But I know that if the boy is fired up enough his parents may nurture his love of science. Heck they might even go out and buy him a telescope. The girls well I don’t know, but I’ll bet that none of them will get a telescope.

    How can we get women to fight for equality academic institutions when some our brightest minds don’t even get to high school? I see it this way if there where more women in enrolled nation wide they’d have a greater voice, more voice more impact. The fact is we lose those voices even before they reach high school.

    If we can’t even get girls a sense that learning is cool. That wanting to excel at math and science won’t get them ostracized from peers. Then maybe we can do something about the unequal numbers in Astronomy, Physics and Math at university level.

    Lastly, may I never hear again a story of a girl deciding that not learning, being average or dumb to fit in is a preferred lifestyle option.

    PS. I’ve done the best I can writing this given my learning disabilities, spell checker and grammar checker can only do so much.

  11. Douglas Duncan says :

    The differing comments from women of different ages reflect a hard-to-avoid sampling bias….
    As far back as 1990, when we organized the first “Women in Astronomy” conference, one thing we learned from other fields is that most people aren’t aware of subtle discrimination until it happens to them. So women who made it to grad school may not have noticed any problems in grad school, but they haven’t competed for postdocs and giving invited talks. And so on for faculty positions, lab space, contracts for satellites, as you advance in your career. In other words, there’s a built in bias against getting a comprehensive, accurate picture, because women who drop out at each career stage are no longer part of the conversation.

    Things have certainly gotten much better since 1991 (when I recall a short time when none of the 40 tenure-track astronomers at STScI were women), but the idea that bias is all gone is not correct.

  12. Karen Masters says :

    Douglas – I agree, the sample is biased to those have stayed in the field. However actually you might notice that one of the (former) postdocs has left to work in the financial world, so we do survey someone who’s “left the pipeline”.

    And I wonder if you imagine those who left would think it less of a problem than those we interviewed? I would assume they would actually make it look worse…. Even those who manage to make it through see more and more bias the longer they’ve been around.

    Our summary is absolutely not that there is no bias left.

  13. Kelsi says :

    Hi!
    Thanks for your summary, it was very interesting to read there are quite a few insights I will take away from this.

    For one, the difference between older and younger interviewees answers. I hear many of my fellow grad students (I am a grad student in planetary science) say that they don’t think discrimination is a problem because they haven’t personally experienced it. I work with women in science issues a bit and so I often feel like it is still there. I never quite know what to tell my colleagues, because I don’t want to discourage them, but I also don’t want them to be completely naive about the situation! I like the final paragraph you quoted from Meg Urry’s interview – being aware of the problem so that you don’t necessarily feel like it is all you!

  14. Elena says :

    I’ve just come across this blog from a link on another blog and I find it really interesting. I have just started a PhD in Astronomy (2 months ago). I’ve wanted to have a career in Astronomy since I was just shy of 17. I’d loved astronomy since I was 5 years old but it had never occurred to me that I could make a career from it. It wasn’t until I was 15 and choosing A Levels that I chose Physics, for the sole purpose of it being a requirement for doing engineering which at the time is what I wanted to do, not having the art skills for architecture. I’d always enjoyed Physics at school and it helped that my brother finished his Physics degree just as I was choosing A Levels so I had support from him (he was ecstatic!). It wasn’t until A Level that I really fell in love with the subject though and realised this was my way into astronomy.

    During undergrad, I went to many Theano talks and was inspired by the women who had had families and figured out how to keep their career going as well as doing what they loved. They were brutally honest about it but their passion for their subject kept them coping with it. I want a family someday and am not naive enough to think I can snap my fingers and my career and family fall into a perfect rhythm but I grew up with a successful career driven mother (single parent family) and saw that she could do it too, with help.

    I have definitely found that there is a lack of women in Astronomy. At my University, I’m in an office consisting of me and 5 guys. Come January, I’m moving to an office of me and 10 guys. Luckily, I get on well with guys. And part of me is fine with it because I know that someday I might be the inspiration for more girls going into astronomy. Astronomy needs those women to push the boundaries in order to be able to level the playing field in the future.

    (sorry for the length)

  15. Karen Masters says :

    Elena, Best of luck everything! So glad you are pursuing your dream. 🙂

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s

%d bloggers like this: