The following blogpost is from Anna Kapinska about the Radio Galaxy Zoo paper that she published recently with Radio Galaxy Zooite, Ivan Terentev on the first sample of candidate Hybrid Morphology Radio Sources (HyMoRS) from the 1st year of Radio Galaxy Zoo results.
Radio Galaxy Zoo scores another scientific publication! The paper ‘Radio Galaxy Zoo: A search for hybrid morphology radio galaxies’ has been published today in the Astronomical Journal. First of all congratulations to everyone, and what wonderful work from all our citizen scientists and the science team! Special thanks go to Ivan Terentev, one of our very active citizen scientists, whose persistent work on finding and collecting HyMoRS in a discussion thread on RadioTalk (link) without doubt earned the second place in the author list of this paper. But of course the publication wouldn’t be possible without all our volunteers, and special thanks are noted in the paper (check out the Acknowledgements on page 14):
“This publication has been made possible by the participation of more than 11,000 volunteers in the Radio Galaxy Zoo Project. Their contributions are acknowledged at http:// rgzauthors.galaxyzoo.org. We thank the following volunteers, in particular, for their comments on the manuscript or active search for candidate RGZ HyMoRS on RadioTalk: Jean Tate, Tsimafei Matorny, Victor Linares Pagán, Christine Sunjoto, Leonie van Vliet, Claude Cornen, Sam Deen, K.T. Wraight, Chris Molloy, and Philip Dwyer.”
But what are HyMoRS? HYbrid MOrphology Radio Sources, HyMoRS or hybrids for short, are peculiar radio galaxies that show atypical radio morphologies. That is, radio galaxies which we can resolve in our observations come in two principal flavours: 1) FRI – type; and 2) FRII-type — named after two scientists who introduced this classification back in 1974, Berney Fanaroff and Julia Riley [link to paper].
Traditionally, FRIs and FRIIs are distinguished by different morphologies observed in radio images, where on the one hand we have archetypal FRIIs showing powerful jets that terminate in so-called hotspots (can be spotted in right panel of Figure 1 as two white bright spots at the ends of the jets), while on the other there are FRIs with their jets often turbulent and brightest close to the host galaxy and its supermassive black hole (left panel of Figure 1). HyMoRS are hybrids, they show both morphologies at the same time, that is they look like FRI on one side and FRII on the other side. Figure 2 shows two examples of the new HyMoRS candidates that Radio Galaxy Zoo identified in this latest paper.
How are HyMoRS formed? We still don’t have a very clear answer to this question. The thing is that there may be many reasons why one radio galaxy would have so radically different looking jets. One possibility is that the medium in which the jets travel through (the space around) is different on each side of the galaxy. In this case the FRI morphology could form if the medium is dense or clumpy for one jet, while FRII morphology could form if the medium is smoother or less dense on the other side for the second jet (but watch this space for more work from our science team). But there are also other options. For example, we may simply see the radio galaxy in projection, or we are observing rare events of a radio galaxy switching off, or switching off and on again. The more HyMoRS we know of, the better we can study them and pinpoint the scenarios of how they form.
For example, the science team at the University of Tasmania has produced a simulation of jets from an FRII-type radio galaxy located in the outer regions of a cluster (~550 kpc from the centre) and expanding in a non-uniform cluster environment. The jet on one side propagates into a much denser medium than the jet on the other side. The jets are very powerful (10^38 Watts) and the total simulation time is 310 Myr. The movies display the density changes associated with the jet expansion. Credit goes to Katie Vandorou, Patrick Yates and Stas Shabala for this simulation (link to simulation).
How rare are HyMoRS? We actually don’t really know, and this is because so far there are very few complete surveys of these radio galaxies. Current estimates indicate that they may be comprising less than 1% of the whole radio galaxy population. We are hoping that with Radio Galaxy Zoo and the new-generation telescopes we will be able to finally pin down the HyMoRS population. And our paper is definitely one big step towards that aim. It’s very exciting as with the fantastic efforts of RGZ we now have 25 new HyMoRS candidates — this could possibly double the numbers on known hybrids!”
So well done everyone and let’s keep up the fantastic work! We couldn’t have done it without you 🙂
Anna, Ivan & the coauthors on this latest paper
The official open access refereed paper can now be found at http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.3847/1538-3881/aa90b7
The article can also be downloaded from: http://arxiv.org/abs/1711.09611
A CAASTRO story with embedded animation is now available at: http://www.caastro.org/news/2017-hymors
The following blogpost is from Omar Contigiani about the Radio Galaxy Zoo paper that he published recently on the cosmic alignment of radio sources.
In the Radio Galaxy Zoo an incredible variety of creatures can be found — as our citizen scientists might know by now, radio sources in the sky can have all sorts of shape and sizes. The most powerful among them are plasma-filled jets emitted by the some of the largest elliptical galaxies in existence. Because of their precise structure, anyone can associate orientations to these sources by simply looking at the directions the jets point at.
Recently, our scientists have been looking at the directional properties of these fascinating beasts. If a particular source points in a direction, is it possible that its neighbours also tend to do the same? Because the distances between adjacent objects are (quite literally) astronomical, it seems intuitive to assume that the relative orientations should be random. However, nature always finds subtle ways to mess with our intuition and it turns out that this is currently an open question in astronomy. Thanks to Radio Galaxy Zoo’s numerous (almost two million) image classifications, the team was able to report the most precise measurement of this effect to date. The results are available in a scientific article published in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society this November.
The analysis performed in the study suggests that relative alignment of radio sources is present on distances which are dubbed as cosmological. This is because only phenomena related to the history of the Universe as a whole are known to be connected to such large scales.
While this is an exciting step towards an answer, formulating any conclusive statement about this alignment and the reasons behind it appears to be difficult. What drives this effect? Is it related to a shared history or environment? More science needs to be done and more galvanising discoveries are waiting for us just around the corner.
Once again, without the contributions made by our volunteers all over the world, we would not have been so successful in our endeavours. A big thank you to all our Radio Galaxy Zooites!
However, we have only reached 74% of our classification target. Head to Radio Galaxy Zoo to become involved and you will be contributing to real science being done today and may be co-authoring another great discovery with us!
Meet Francesco de Gasperin, an associate science team member (since 2015) who is very interested in the classifications resulting from Radio Galaxy Zoo
I am a VENI fellow at the Leiden University in the Netherlands. My research is mainly based on developing and exploiting new technologies in radio-astronomy to study active galactic nuclei (AGN), galaxy clusters, galaxies and ultimately everything which emits radio waves. I am part of the LOFAR collaboration and most of my time is invested in the commissioning of this new radio-telescope. I am now leading the effort to calibrate the low band antennas of LOFAR to observe the sky at decameter wavelength. Our plan is to ultimately produce the lowest frequency radio survey ever done.
I did my PhD at the Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics in Munich on a thesis titled: “The impact of radio-emitting supermassive black holes on their environment: the LOFAR view of the Virgo cluster”. During my master I also worked for the Planck mission, a satellite designed to study the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) – the relic radiation from the Big Bang.
What has Francesco and his student, Omar Contigiani done lately ?
Is the orientation of radio galaxies totally random? Or is it driven by the large scale structure where galaxies are embedded in? Recently, some works on small regions of the sky claimed an intrinsic alignment of radio sources. This is in line with the observed alignment between quasar jets and the surrounding large scale structure at higher redshifts.
With the help of the RGZ we are now able to identify the orientation of a very large number of radio galaxies. This allows us to expand these studies to unprecedented scales, moving from regions of few square degrees to around 10 thousands.
To stand on the shoulder of giants, we first have to find them. In Radio Galaxy Zoo, we are of course referring to the hunt for Giant Radio Galaxies. These Giants can provide us with valuable insights into the environment in which they reside as well as the evolution of radio AGN. In this post, I will present a summary of the highlights that Heinz A. has reported on RGZ’s search for Giants in 2016.
As of late September 2016, RGZ citizen scientists have uncovered at least 313 Giant candidates which are larger than 1 Mpc in projected size. Of the 313, 201 are new discoveries made by RGZ! Of course, follow-up observations and further verification checks are required. However, this is still fantastic job and no small feat by the team. A big thank you goes to RG Zooite Antikodon & Dolorous_Edd for paving the way again and discovering ~78% of these Giant candidates. To put things into perspective, if one wanted to extract a list of Giants from the NASA Extragalactic Database (NED; a well-known archive used by professional astronomers) one would find only 55 objects tagged as Giant Radio Galaxies! This is partly due to the fact that in publications such objects are not always explicitly labelled as such. Here is Heinz’s table comparing the properties of the published Giants versus the newly-discovered RGZ candidates :
|Property||Published||New RGZ candidates|
|Median linear size (Mpc)||1.3||1.18|
|Number (size> 2 Mpc)||29||6|
It is clear that RGZ is leading the pack in collating and cataloguing these unusual radio galaxies. With our upcoming observing run using the Gemini-North 8-meter telescope in Hawaii, we will be following up several of these candidates.
My warmest congratulations again to the Giants Team! Keep up the fantastic work. After all, we still have a third of RGZ to complete and I am sure more Giant candidates will be discovered in 2017. More information can be found at the Giant team’s RadioTalk Discussion thread.
This end-of-year post is written by Jean Tate, an RGZ citizen scientist and associate science team member who is providing us with the 2016 update on her team’s hunt for more Spiral Double Radio-lobe AGNs — SDRAGNs. My warmest congratulations again to the SDRAGN Team! I will be sure to look out for more SDRAGN news in 2017. More information can be found at the SDRAGN team’s RadioTalk Discussion thread.
A small band of intrepid scientists – citizen and regular – have been hunting SDRAGNs for quite some time now. These strange beasts were mythical, until 1998 when one was spotted above the Antipodes (it goes by the highly memorable name of 0313-192 … not). Since then a dozen or so other Spiral galaxies which host Double Radio lobes (and which have Active Galactic Nuclei; SDRAGN, get it?) have been bagged. With thousands of sharp-eyed citizen scientists, RGZ is an ideal place to look for more.
It has been relatively easy to find SDRAGN candidates – two known ones were flagged by RGZooites, who were quite unaware of their status – but rather more challenging to turn candidates into certainties; for example, chance alignments can appear very convincing. Anyway, from ~a thousand “possibles”, the SDRAGN team picked ten really promising ones, and is now writing up a paper on them (actually, while doing some final checks, two of the ten turned out to be imposters; never mind, there are dozens more good candidates for a second paper). Curiously, one of the most difficult questions was (and still is) “is this really a spiral?”
The figure above shows J1649+26, an SDRAGN published by Minnie M. in 2015 (URL Link to her paper). The red contours represent the double radio lobes emanating from the supermassive black hole of this galaxy.
You can see some of the SDRAGN candidates in RGZ Talk, by searching for the hashtag #SDRAGN (some will also have the hashtag #spiral; many candidates do not have either hashtag). If you find an SDRAGN candidate, please include the #SDRAGN hashtag in your comment.
In 2016, you have all contributed to more than 16 years of continuous classification and our project is now two-thirds of its way to completion and what a year it has been!
The biggest science news coming out of Radio Galaxy Zoo this year will have to be the official publication of the Matorny-Terentev cluster of galaxies, (RGZ-CL J0823.2+0333) –named after two of our super-Zooites who discovered the Giant Wide-Angle Tail galaxy (shown in white contours to the left, Banfield et al 2016). We have also made great progress across several RadioTalk projects such as the Giants, the Spiral-DRAGNs, the Green DRAGNs and the HyMoRS. Therefore, we will be providing more detailed updates from the team leaders in the coming weeks so please stay tuned for more exciting Radio Galaxy Zoo science highlights from 2016.
Our science team has also been evolving and this year, we bade farewell to Kyle W. and Chris S. who are pursuing new adventures and we sincerely thank them for all the fish. We also saw the arrival and departure of Tim F., our ANU outreach student who worked with Julie and we hope that you have enjoyed his blog posts earlier this year.
This year, the RGZ science team welcomes Meg Schwamb from Gemini Observatory (who helped with the Chinese translation of RGZ) and Jean Tate, the first RGZ citizen scientist to become an associate member of the RGZ science team. Meg will be helping us with the upcoming RGZ follow-up observations using the Gemini telescope.
We also have a new student joining our team and working with Julie in the coming year. Meet James L., a PhD Candidate in Science Communication at the Australian National Centre for the Public Awareness of Science. He completed his Bachelor of Science (Hons) in 2015 at the Australian National University with a double major in Astronomy/Astrophysics and Science Communication. I am sure that you’ll hear more from James himself in the coming year.
Thank you all very much for your support again. We are most grateful for your help thus far. To finish the remaining third of the project, we seek your help in the coming days, months & year to complete this monumental task.
We wish you all a wonderful holiday period and a great upcoming year!
Ivy, Julie & RGZ team
Happy 2nd birthday to Radio Galaxy Zoo!
On Radio Galaxy Zoo’s 2nd birthday, we wish to thank you all for achieving more than 1.42 million classifications (~57.2 years of work)! That is an extra 20 years of classifications just in the last year. We are nearly at the halfway mark now so we are cheering you all on for the great effort and dedication that many of you have shown.
So what has the science team done in the last year with your classifications? Our first refereed paper has been published.
Anna Kapinska’s HyMoRS paper has been submitted for publication and we have another 3 papers on the sidelines in preparation and awaiting submission in the next few months.
And we have also submitted several proposals to conduct follow-up observations of the many interesting systems that you all have found!
Thank you all very much for your support again. We are most grateful for your help thus far. However, we still have more than half of our sample to classify. So we are seeking your help in the coming days, months & year to complete this monumental task.
We wish you all a wonderful holiday period and a great upcoming year!
Ivy, Julie & RGZ team
First science paper on hybrid morphology radio galaxies found through Radio Galaxy Zoo project has now been submitted!
In the paper we have revised the definition of the hybrid morphology radio galaxy (HyMoRS or hybrids) class. In general, HyMoRS show different Fanaroff-Riley radio morphology on either side of the active nucleus, that is FRI type on one side and FRII on the other side of their infrared host galaxy. But we found that this wasn’t very precise, and set up a clear definition of these sources, which is:
”To minimise the misclassification of HyMoRS, we attempt to tighten the original morphological classification of radio galaxies in the scope of detailed observational and analytical/numerical studies undertaken in the past 30 years. We consider a radio source to be a HyMoRS only if
(i) it has a well-defined hotspot on one side and a clear FR I type jet on the other, though we note the hotspots may `flicker’, that is their brightness may be rapidly variable (Saxton et al. 2002), and, in the case the radio source has a very prominent core or is highly asymmetric,
(ii) its core prominence does not suggest strong relativistic beaming nor its asymmetric radio structure can be explained by differential light travel time effects. ”
Based on this we revised hybrids reported in scientific literature and found 18 objects that satisfy our criteria. With Radio Galaxy Zoo during the first year of its operation, through our fantastic RadioTalk, you guys now nearly doubled this number finding another 14 hybrids, which we now confirm! Two examples from the paper are below:
We also looked at the mid-infrared colours of hybrids’ hosts. As explained by Ivy in our last RGZ blog post (https://blog.galaxyzoo.org/2015/03/02/first-radio-galaxy-zoo-paper-has-been-submitted/), the mid-infrared colour space is defined by the WISE filter bands: W1, W2 and W3, corresponding to 3.4, 4.6 and 12 microns, respectively.
The results are below:
For those of you interested in seeing the full paper, we will post a link to freely accessible copy once the paper is accepted by the journal and is in press! 🙂
Fantastic job everyone!
Anna & the RGZ science team
The project description and early science paper (results from Year 1) for the Radio Galaxy Zoo project has been submitted!
Based upon our results from 1 year of operation, we find the RGZ host galaxies reside in 3 primary loci of mid-infrared colour space. The mid-infrared colour space is defined by the WISE filter bands: W1, W2 and W3, corresponding to 3.4, 4.6 and 12 microns; respectively.
Approximately 10% of the RGZ sample reside in the mid-IR colour space dominated by elliptical galaxies, which have older stellar populations and are less dusty, hence resulting in bluer (W2-W3) colours. The 2nd locus (where ~15% of RGZ sources are found) lies in the colour space known as the `AGN wedge’, typically associated with X-ray-bright QSOs and Seyferts. And lastly, the largest concentration of RGZ host galaxies (~30%) can be found in the 3rd locus usually associated with luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs). It should be noted that only a small fraction of LIRGs are associated with late-stage mergers. The remainder of the RGZ host population are distributed along the loci of both star-forming and active galaxies, indicative of radio emission from star-forming galaxies and/or dusty elliptical (non-star-forming) galaxies. See the figure below for a plot of these results.
Caption to figure: WISE colour-colour diagram, showing sources from the WISE all-sky catalog (colourmap), 33,127 sources from the 75% RGZ catalog (black contours), and powerful radio galaxies (green points) from (Gürkan et al. 2014). The wedge used to identify IR colours of X-ray-bright AGN from Lacy et al. (2004) & Mateos et al. (2012) is overplotted (red dashes). Only 10% of the WISE all-sky sources have colours in the X-ray bright AGN wedge; this is contrasted with 40% of RGZ and 49% of the Gürkan et al. (2014) radio galaxies. The remaining RGZ sources have WISE colours consistent with distinct populations of elliptical galaxies and LIRGs, with smaller numbers of spiral galaxies and starbursts.
In addition, we will also be submitting our paper on Hybrid Morphology Radio Sources (HyMoRS) in the next few days so stay tuned!
As always, thank you all very much for all your help and support and keep up the awesome work!
Julie, Ivy & the RGZ science team
Huzzah! We have now broken through the 1 million mark with Radio Galaxy Zoo as of January 16, 2015. It has taken all of you ~13 months to do 40 years worth of cross-identifications. Well done and a huge thank you to every single one of you out there who helped us along.
A big shout-out to the winners of our 1 millionth classification milestone competition. The winners are: @planetari7, @ChrisMolloy, @leonie van vliet, @antikodon, @BOSSARD louis michel and @JF45456. I will be e-mailing each of you soon.
My biggest thank you to every single Radio Galaxy Zooite who helped us get this far. We really could not have done this without you.
Ivy, Julie & the entire RGZ team